Resources & Research

Our latest work

Gamalo and Ilham et al 2023 Removal from the wild endangers the once widespread long-tailed macaque

The IUCN Red List Assessment 2022 outlines the long-tailed macaque is an endangered species due to exploitation, habitat loss, and culling, and emphasizes the need for better management and protection to preserve the species’ ecological and cultural roles.

The IPS (International Primate Society) urges biomedical research to end their use of wild-caught primates and encourages alternative research strategies that do not harm wild populations.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Guidelines & Red List Assessments 2022

Here, you find the Guidelines for Responsible Images of Non-Human Primates, which offers ways to minimize negative public perceptions and cross-cultural misunderstandings through primate images.

Below, you find the IUCN Assessments for the long-tailed macaque and its subspecies.
Long-tailed Macaque
Dark-crowned Long-tailed Macaque
Burmese Long-tailed Macaque
Con Song Long-tailed Macaque
Common Long-tailed Macaque
Karimunjawa Long-tailed Macaque
Lasia Long-tailed Macaque
Maratua Long-tailed Macaque
Nicobar Long tailed Macaque

Behavioral Ecology

Below, you find our research on the behavioral ecology of the long-tail macaque.

Hansen, M. et al. (2020). Comparative home range size and habitat selection in provisioned and non-provisioned long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesia. Contributions to Zoology. 89(4) pp. 393-411.

Hansen, M. (2019). Ecology and conservation of long-tailed macaques in a human-macaque interface. PhD thesis. University of Copenhagen.

Luncz, L., Gill, M., Proffitt, T., Svensson, M., Kulik, L. & Malaivijitnond, S. (2019). Group-specific archaeological signatures of stone tool use in wild macaques. eLife.e46961.


Below, you find our research on the population distribution of the long-tail macaque.

Eudey, A. (2008). The Crab-Eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis): Widespread and Rapidly

Gumert, M. D., Fuentes, A. and Jones-Engel, L. (eds.). (2011). Monkeys on the Edge: Ecology and Management of Long-Tailed Macaques and their Interface with Humans. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Hasan, M.K. & Feeroz, M.M.(2010). Distribution and status of Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1830) in Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 2(12).

Fooden, J. (2006). Comparative review of fascicularis-group species of macaques (Primates: Macaca). Fieldiana Zoology, 2006(107), 1-43. Chicago

Hansen, M. F., Gill, M., Nawangsari, V. A., Sanchez, K. L., Cheyne, S. M., Nijman, V.,et al. (2021). Conservation of Long-tailed Macaques: Implications of the Updated IUCN Status and the CoVID-19 Pandemic. Prim. Conserv. 35, 1–11.


Below, you find our research on the trade and market of the long-tail macaque.

Nijman, V., Spaan, D., Margono, E., Wirdateti & Nekaris, K. A. I. (2017). Changes in the Primate Trade in Indonesian Wildlife Markets Over a 25-Year Period: Fewer Apes and Langurs, More Macaques, and Slow Lorises. American Journal of Primatology. 79(11)

Campbell, S., Timoshyna, A., Sant, G., Biggs, D., Braczkowski, A., Caceres-Escobar, H., Indraswari, K., Compton, J., and Cheung, H. ( 2022). Options For Managing And Tracing Wild Animal Trade Chains To Reduce Zoonotic Disease Risk. TRAFFIC, Cambridge UK.

Broad (2020). Wildlife Trade, COVID-19 and Zoonotic Disease Risks: Shaping the Response. TRAFFIC briefing document.

Hansen, M. F., Gill, M., Briefer, E. F., Nielsen, D. R. K. and Nijman, V. (2022). Monetary Value of Live Trade in a Commonly Traded Primate, the Long-Tailed Macaque, Based on Global Trade Statistics. Front. Conserv. Sci. 3:839131.

Fuentes, A. (2010). Natural Cultural Encounters in Bali: Monkeys, Temples, Tourists, and Ethnoprimatology. Cultural Anthropology. 25(4)

Knauf, S. and Jones-Engel, L. (2020). Neglected Diseases in Monkeys: From the Monkey-Human Interface to One Health. Springer Nature, Switzerland. 386pp.

Peterson, J.V. & Riley, E.P. (2013). Monyet Yang Dihargai, Monyet Yang Dibenci: The Human-Macaque Interface in Indonesia.