MACS (Macaque Alliance for Cultural Studies) aims to provide a platform for longer term collaborative research focused on the extent of distinct cultural traditions in populations of long-tailed macaques across the entire range of our chosen species.
Already, work by members of MACS has highlighted distinctive cultural traditions in
different regions. For example, in Thailand our research suggests that neighbouring
populations of macaques use stone tools in different ways to feed on marine prey. In Bali, differing groups of macaques appear to deploy different socially learned strategies to gain advantage in their relationship with humans sharing the same landscape. A more comprehensive body of research related to variance in cultural traditions in different populations of long-tailed macaques will represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of primate cultural evolution by extending our knowledge cultural traditions in human and non-human primates beyond the more extensively studied ape clade. In conservation terms, our research regarding cultural traditions in long-tailed macaques will raise important questions that need to be more fully explored. Much importance has been placed upon the cultural heritage of humans in an increasingly “global” and apparently homogenous world. Distinct cultural traditions found in different populations of long-tailed macaques living in rapidly developing “Tiger” economies means that greater emphasis should be placed on the preservation of cultures in particular groups of long-tailed macaques in addition to general population level protection. We invite all interested parties who are studying long-tailed macaques to share their experience of socially learned behaviour and potential cultural traditions

Introductory Reading
Gumert Michael D. and Malaivijitnond Suchinda 2013Long-tailed macaques select mass of stone tools according to food type Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B3682012041320120413 Gumert, M.D. and Malaivijitnond, S., 2012. Marine prey processed with stone tools by burmese long‐tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) in intertidal habitats. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, 149(3), pp.447-457.
Luncz, L. V., Gill, M., Svensson, M. S., Proffitt, T., Kulik, L., & Malaivijitnond, S. (2020). Diversity of stone tools between long-tailed macaque populations. Folia Primatologica, 91(3), 309 Leca, J.B., Gunst, N., Gardiner, M. and Wandia, I.N., 2021. Acquisition of object-robbing and object/food-bartering behaviours: a culturally maintained token economy in free-ranging long-tailed macaques. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1819), p.20190677.
Brotcorne, F., Giraud, G., Gunst, N., Fuentes, A., Wandia, I.N., Beudels-Jamar, R.C., Poncin, P., Huynen, M.C. and Leca, J.B., 2017. Intergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia). Primates, 58(4), pp.505-516. Fairclough, G., 2008. A new landscape for cultural heritage management: characterisation as a management tool. In Landscapes under pressure (pp. 55-74). Springer, Boston, MA.

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